Module 6 – Digital Citizenship

Commentators such as Ribble (2014) and the authors of “Acceptable Use Policies” (https://www.commonsensemedia.org/educators/1to1/aups) emphasise that school digital policies involve striking a balance between opportunities for communication and access to information and personal responsibility for online behaviour. Ribble (2014) indicates that policies should fall into three categories: respect, education and protection. The authors of “Acceptable Use Policies” suggest a range of topics that should be addressed in policies: use of network, internet safety (privacy, inappropriate content, unwanted contact), filtering and monitoring, copyright and ownership, network security and privacy, disciplinary action, digital citizenship and social media usage.

I am working at an international high school in Shanghai, China teaching students intending to study at universities in North America. Chinese students enjoy using their devices as much, if not more, than students anywhere. Senior staff and parents however view technology as distracting students from the dominant instructional approach at my school. They do not consider digital use in terms of striking a balance between use and responsibility.

Reference:

Ribble, M. (2014). The importance of digital citizenship: why schools should help young people navigate the digital landscape. District Administration, November, p88). Expanded Academic ASAP, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=EAIM&sw=w&u=csu_au&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA389798154&it=r&asid=5952608b169d75dbe2e1158d1cbabaff. Accessed 6 Jan. 2017.

Module 6 – Ways to use Web 2.0 Tools

The concept of Web 2.0 is based on transforming the user from a consumer of technology and software to that of an active interactor: users collaborate, contribute to authorship, customise websites and publish thoughts (Alexander, 2006 and Heafner & Friedman, 2008 as cited in Hew and Cheong, 2013). Lombard and Porto (2010) review a wide range of Web 2.0 tools for the classroom that they categorise as follows: digital story telling and presentation tools, collaboration and networking building tools, storing and sharing information tools and online synchronous communication tools. They emphasise the role of Web 2.0 Tools in terms of providing diverse approaches suited to individual learners and cast the teacher as constructivist guiding rather than disseminating information.

I use the 5E Instructional Model (Bybee, 2014) to structure science learning units. The Model involves structuring a unit into five stages: engagement, exploration, explanation, elaboration and evaluation. The Model is constructivist in orientation (Goodrum and Druhan, 2012) and thus well suited to the integration of Web 2.0 tools. By way of example, in the engagement and exploration stages students can use communication and collaboration and networking tools to work collaboratively to conduct secondary-source investigations to explore phenomena and new perspectives related to the content and learning outcomes. In respect to the elaboration stage students can work individually or collaboratively using digital story telling and presentation tools, collaboration and network building tools, and storing and sharing information tools to create presentations and videos, to record and review laboratory experiments and fieldwork investigations, to review real world applications related to the content and learning outcomes, and to create concept maps and summary notes.

References:

Bybee, R.W. (2014). The BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Personal Reflections and Contemporary Implications, Science and Children, 51 (8), 10-13.

Hew, K.F., & Cheung, W.S. (2013). Use of Web 2.0 technologies in K-12 and higher education: The search for evidence-based practice, Education Research Review, Vol. 9, 47-64. Retrieved December 29th, 2016 from http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/science/article/pii/S1747938X12000620?np=y

Goodrum, D., & Druhan, A. (2012). Teaching strategies for science classrooms. In Venville, G., & Dawson, V. (Eds.). The art of Teaching Science: For middle and secondary school, Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Lombard, R., & Porto, S. (2010). Web 2.0 in the Classroom. In Yamamoto, J. (Ed.). Technology Leadership in Teacher Education: Integrated Solutions and Experiences: Integrated Solutions and Experiences. IGI Global. http://www.igi-global.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/gateway/book/37346

Module 6 – Knowledge required to develop TPACK

My review of Alan November’s website resources, including the quizzes, (http://novemberlearning.com/educational-resources-for-educators/information-literacy-resources/) confirmed that I need to work hard to build my technological knowledge. I am familiar with Microsoft Works software suite but need to develop knowledge of a wide range of technologies and websites.

November’s website provided a number of new insights. November suggests that students should be instructed to verify website publishers using www.easywhois.com (http://novemberlearning.com/educational-resources-for-educators/information-literacy-resources/5-find-the-publisher-of-a-web-site/), November illustrates the issue with an example of a seemingly useful website for research, www.martinlutherkingrg. This is one of the top five results for searching Martin Luther King using Google, but on further investigation the site is published by a White Supremacist organisation and contains racist material. November also suggests that students be instructed to review the external links of a website (http://novemberlearning.com/educational-resources-for-educators/information-literacy-resources/7-check-the-external-links). November contends that a review of  external links is important to validate site content.

The Google Chrome resource “20 things I learned about the browser and the web” (http://www.20thingsilearned.com/en-US) very helpful. I have often worried about security when using the internet and therefore found the information about privacy and security particularly helpful. During the Christmas and New Year holiday I have been speaking to my 18 and 19 year old daughters about the range of websites, software and applications that they have used. We explored some websites summarising web tools such as “free web tools students and teachers should know about” (https://ww2.kqed.org/mindshift/2013/07/08/13-free-web-tools-students-and-teachers-should-know-about/) and also discussed the approach and learning resources developed by my elder daughter’s inspirational science teacher.

I have been exploring a range of resources to develop my knowledge. In this respect I have found the following resources useful: the glossary of Roblyer & Doering (2014) is a good place to start in terms of learning the language of technology; Roblyer & Doering (2014) is otherwise a valuable learning resource; studyladder.com (https://www.studyladder.com/teacher/resources?teacherResources=1) provides a free range of tutorial videos about technology; and YouTube (https://www.youtube.com) is also useful for finding a wide range of tutorial videos about technology.

My approach will be to adopt a positive and experimental approach to integrate technology and thus become increasingly technologically knowledgeable.

Reference:

Roblyer, M. & Doering, A.H. (2014). Integrating education technology into teaching: Sixth Edition. Essex, UK: Pearson Education.

Module 6 – Malware and Hacking

Roblyer and Doering (2014, p.224) invoke the 17th century English philosopher, Francis Bacon’s famous and oft quoted aphorism “scientia est potentia” (“knowledge is power”) to connect the idea that the 21st century Information Society provides freedom to acquire virtually limitless knowledge to empower the individual. This heady take on the Information Society is not universally accepted; Devo, the American new-wave band warned us already 40 years ago of developing a man-as-machine persona replete with red flowerpot headgear, ridiculous jumpsuits and robotic movements (http://academic.eb.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/levels/collegiate/article/110283).

Roblyer and Doering (2014, pp. 234-236) provide some insight into the less savoury side of the Information Society: accessing sites with inappropriate material such as pornography; safety and privacy issues including online predators, cyberbullying and unscrupulous advertisements; fraud including identity theft; copyright and plagiarism; and computer viruses and hacking.

This blog explores malware and hacking and reviews a number of strategies that students can use to protect themselves and reduce the risks associated with malware and hacking. Bertino (2016) warns us that there are malicious parties with significant resources and sophisticated technical capabilities who carry out carefully planned and long-lasting attacks on computer users. She also points out that some of these attacks may come from insiders. Two pernicious types of attack are phishing and malware. Phishing involves masquerading as someone else, often with a fake website, to trick someone into revealing personal information that can then be used to for a variety of malevolent purposes including fraud (www.20thingsilearnered.com/en-US/malware/2). Malware is any malicious software designed to damage, destroy, disrupt operations or spy on the user; for example, viruses that harm software and hardware (Roblyer &  Doering, 2014, p.26). Hacking involves someone gaining entry to a user’s device to steal data or commit malicious acts (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p.28). Bertino outlines one such malevolent purpose as mounting botnet attacks in which parties use upwards of millions of victims’ computers to launch denial-of-service attacks and distribute spam. She points to how the scale of such attacks can be used to influence public opinion by disseminating skewed or false information. Patnak (2016) discusses the sophistication with which criminals operate to infect computers with malware and recommends that one should only open documents and access websites that one is certain are legitimate. Patnak’s analysis is disturbing to the extent that his analysis makes one nervous about using one’s computer. He highlights a range of strategies for users to protect themselves and which can also be taught to students: use strong personal passwords, do not use the same password for all applications, install and use antivirus and antimalware protection, keep security patches up-to-date, avoid shopping, sports, gaming and pornography websites, scan email prior to opening, delete all unwanted and untrusted emails do not click on weblinks to unknown sources, do not respond to strange messages, scan all files before transferring to your computer, block unwanted outbound communications, install software only from trusted websites, use intrusion prevention mechanisms, do not post confidential information in social networking and do not be too trusting.

References:

Bertino, E. (2016). Security Threats: Protecting the New Cyberfrontier. Computer, Vol. 49(6), 11-14. Retrieved January 4th, 2017 from CSU Library.

Patnak, P.B. (2016). Malware a Growing Cybercrime Threat: Understanding and Combating Malvertising Attacks. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, Vol 7(2), 9-11.  Retrieved January 4th, 2017 from CSU Library.

Roblyer, M. & Doering, A.H. (2014). Integrating education technology into teaching: Sixth Edition. Essex, UK: Pearson Education.

Module 5 – Hardware and Software – Science

“Technology supports science and science makes new technology possible” (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 334). Working from this premise, every conceivable hardware and software technology can play a role in the science classroom and laboratory. This blog, however, addresses a number of scientific-specific hardware and software issues.

Roblyer & Doering (pp.345-350) describe a range of strategies for science and engineering. Scientific inquiry and investigations using authentic online resources and projects are discussed as strategies to engage students and develop an appreciation for the scientific process; three such projects indicated are GLOBE, Project FeederWatch and Journey North. Another approach discussed is the use of robotics to engage students about engineering; robotics camps and competitions are sponsored by companies, universities and professional organisations. Robotics classes and events are very popular with Chinese students. Roblyer & Doering (p.344) note that hands-on-minds-on science remains a major instructional strategy but also note conflicting evidence regarding the merits thereof versus virtual, simulated experiments (Arkpan & Strayer, 2010) and the need for more research into the question. There is a role for virtual, simulated experiments in the science classroom but I agree with the National Science Teachers Association (2007) and the American Chemical Society (2008), both cited in Roblyer & Doering (pp.344-345) that authentic science learning requires experience “doing” hands-on science in laboratories. Hands-on, working scientifically skills are also included in Stage 6 science learning outcomes (BoS, 2013).

I note that concept of technology in the science laboratory is not limited to information and communication hardware and software. Roblyer & Doering mention data loggers, calculator based laboratories and robotics but there is a wide range analytical equipment that can be used in the science laboratory: e.g. pH meters, electrical measurement devices, chromatographs and spectrometers. These devices can be used to support open-ended projects such as monitoring environmental variables and contribute to science as a rich and varied learning experience.

References:

Board of Studies New South Wales. (2013). Chemistry Stage 6 Syllabus: October 2002. Retrieved, May 25, 2016 from http://boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/pdf_doc/chemistry-st6-syl.pdf

Roblyer, M., & Doering, A.H. (2014). Integrating educational technology into teaching: Sixth Edition. Essex, UK: Pearson Education.

Module 5 – Technology Integration Planning (TIP Model)

“The TIP Model gives teachers a general approach to identifying and addressing the challenges of integrating technology into teaching (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, p. 66)”. It provides a methodical three-dimesional framework to plan, implement and assess the integration of technology within the broader task of lesson programming and planning. In the planning phase the TIP Model integrates TPACK content, pedagogical and technological knowledge issues (Koehler and Mishra, 2005). I agree with Okojie, Olinzock and Okojie-Boulder (2006) that lesson planning is a complex multifaceted task and therefore see the TIP Model as a helpful checklist when planning rather than a stand-alone planning model. Roblyer and Doering (pp.66-77).provide a helpful checklist in this respect: remedy identified weaknesses or skills by, for example, using drill-and-practice software, promote skills fluency and automaticy, support self-paced learning and reviews of concepts, foster creative problem solving and metacognition, build mental models and increase knowledge transfer,  foster collaboration, allow for multiple and distributed intelligences, foster motivation, optimise scarce resources, remove logistical hurdles to learning such as boring and repetitive tasks, and develop information and visual literacies.

References:

Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical and content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Science, Vol 32(2), pp. 131-152. Retrieved December 31st, 2016 from CSU Library.

Okojie, M., Olinzock, A., and Okojie-Boulder, T. (2006). The Pedagogy of Technology Integration, Journal of Technology Studies, Vol. 32(2), pp. 66-71. Retrieved December 20th, 2016 from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ847571

Roblyer, M. & Doering, A.H. (2014). Integrating education technology into teaching: Sixth Edition. Essex, UK: Pearson Education.

Module 4 – QR Codes – A helpful assistive technology

Thorne (2016) contends that as portable technologies become increasingly common in the classroom educators should find ways to take advantage of their educative potential. He sees Quick Response (QR) codes as an assistive technology to exploit their educative potential and defines them as a type of matrix barcode that can be scanned by students quickly and easily to engage with online materials, including videos, podcasts and images. He presents a variety of ideas for integrating QR codes in the classroom including their use in collaborative and communicative lessons.

QR Codes are a simple assistive technology to facilitate file sharing and internet navigation. The use of QR codes is becoming increasingly widespread. I use them to exchange contact details for the networking app, WeChat and note they are commonly used in China in advertising and packaging to allow consumers to obtain more information about products and services. They look likely to become increasingly popular as developer of mobile apps find an increasing range of ways to use them. unless something more convenient is developed to usurp their role.

Reference:

Thorne, T. (2016). Augmenting Classroom Practice with QR Codes. Tesol Journal, Vol. 7(3), pp. 746-754. Retrieved January 9th, 2017 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tesj.257/abstract;jsessionid=030CBB5F33421C53326CC2ABEFE035B3.f04t02?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+Journal+subscribe+and+renew+pages+for+some+journals+will+be+unavailable+on+Wednesday+11th+January+2017+from+06%3A00-12%3A00+GMT+%2F+01%3A00-07%3A00+EST+%2F+14%3A00-20%3A00+SGT+for+essential+maintenance.+Apologies+for+the+inconvenience