I have two years teaching experience but hesitate to consider myself an experienced lesson planner.
The TIP Model (Roblyer & Doering, 2014, pp.66-77) and TPACK (Koehler & Mishra, 2005) are useful tools but it is important to note, as broadly acknowledged by Okojie, Olinzock & Okojie-Boulder (2006), that lesson planning is a complex, multidimensional process involving content, technology and a range of factors subsumed by the concept of pedagogy. Teaching Australia (2008 as cited in Marsh, 2010, p.195) defines pedagogy as strategies, skills and abilities applied to foster good learning outcomes. Cherner and Smith (2016) highlight the following pedagogic elements in their analysis of TPACK: differentiated instruction, rigor, literacy skills, classroom management, feedback and assessment and lesson planning and assessment. They contend that failure to consider any of these elements will adversely affect instruction.
As a science teacher I use the 5E Instructional Model (Bybee, 2014). The model involves planning a learning unit in five stages: engagement, exploration, explanation, elaboration and evaluation. The model is constructivist in orientation (Goodrum and Druhan, 20112). In terms of the planning I have found Roy Killen’s Planning for quality teaching and learning (2009, pp.77-99) very helpful. Killen’s advice starts with clarifying why you are teaching the lesson. He contends that if you are not clear about why, do not expect your students to be clear about it either. This process requires one to consider the lesson’s relevance and purpose, how it relates to the subject, students’ prior knowledge and new concepts. Next write clear learning outcomes and decide how you will assess whether students have achieved the outcomes. At this point Killen cites and suggests using a taxonomy of learning such as Bloom (1956), Harrow (1972) and Anderson & Krathwold (2001). Next select the content that students will need to understand to achieve the outcomes. Drawing from TPACK, consider your Content Knowledge and what you may need to review. It is advisable to re-read the section of the subject textbook, if applicable, to pre-empt any issues. I also research some questions to deepen my understanding. Killen then recommends considering appropriate pedagogic strategies. He proposes (p.84) using the following question to guide the selection of strategy, “What learning experiences will make it easy for students to achieve the lesson outcomes?” Drawing from TPACK’s intersection between pedagogic and technological knowledge, Killen’s question can be rephrased as, “What combinations of pedagogic strategy and technology will provide the learning experiences that make it easy for students to achieve learning outcomes.” Roblyer and Doering (2014, p.65) summarise a range of perspectives to develop these combinations: to remedy identified weaknesses or skills by, for example, the use of drill-and-practice software; to promote skills fluency and automaticy; to support self-paced learning and reviews of concepts; to foster creative problem solving and metacognition; to build mental models and increase knowledge transfer; to foster collaboration; to allow for multiple and distributed intelligences; to generate motivation; to optimise scarce resources; to remove logistical hurdles to learning such as boring and repetitive tasks; and to develop information and visual literacies. Although this planning process has been presented as a linear approach, it is in practice non-linear. Elements may have to be reconsidered as the plan develops. Drawing from TPACK’s intersection between the three knowledge domains, reconsider content and possibly also assessment to ensure that all elements of the plan are consistent and aligned. The boundaries between content, pedagogic elements and technology knowledge are not clearly defined and the planning process involves carefully interweaving these components.
Killen also recommends considering constraints in the planning process. By this he means being realistic about what and how much can be learnt and the resources available. I suggest keeping things simple as a new teacher even if this means limiting the use of enriching strategies and enhancing technologies. It is more important to focus on your students and delivering well-executed lessons initially than going into a lesson with too much to be concerned about in terms of strategy and technology. I speak from experience.
Bybee, R.W. (2014). The BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Personal Reflections and Contemporary Implications. Science and Children, 51 (8), 10-13.
Cherner, T., & Smith, D. (2016). Reconceptualizing TPACK to Meet the Needs of Twenty-First-Century Education. The New Educator, 1-21. Retrieved January 20th, 2017 from CSU Library
Goodrum, D., & Druhan, A. (2012). Teaching strategies for science classrooms. In Venville, G., & Dawson, V. (Eds.). The art of Teaching Science: For middle and secondary school, Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Killen, R. (2009). Effective Teaching Strategies: Lessons from research and practice, (5th ed.). South Melbourne, VIC: Cengage Learning.
Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical and content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Science, Vol 32(2), 131-152. Retrieved December 31st, 2016 from CSU Library
Marsh, C. (2010). Becoming a Teacher: Knowledge, Skills and Issues, (5th ed.), Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia.
Okojie, M., Olinzock, A., and Okojie-Boulder, T. (2006). The Pedagogy of Technology Integration. Journal of Technology Studies, Vol. 32(2), 66-71. Retrieved December 20th, 2016 from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ847571
Roblyer, M. & Doering, A.H. (2014). Integrating education technology into teaching: Sixth Edition. Essex, UK: Pearson Education.